This program is approved for WV Expanded School Mental Health.
Last reviewed: 2023
- reduced problematic behaviors
- reduced risk for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
- fewer symptoms of depression
- fewer school-related injuries and symptoms of aggression
- reduced rates of bullying
- decreased suicide ideation and fewer attempts
- decreased tobacco use
- reduced alcohol use
- decreased illicit drug including opioid abuse
- less overall service use for drug abuse or psychiatric disorder
- higher reading levels than their peers
- reduced need for Special Education Services
- higher graduation and college entrance rates
Continuum of Care:
Indicated Prevention, Selective Prevention, Universal Prevention
Behavioral Health/Mental Health, Depression, Disruptive Behaviors, Substance Use, Suicide
A balanced amount of the research involved diverse populations
Children in grades Pre-Kindergarten through 6th
This program is implemented by classroom teachers and educators.
Is Training Required?
Yes, see developer info
Who can provide the required training?
Please see the following link for more training information: https://www.paxis.org/pax-trainings/
Program Costs (materials, training, etc.):
Yes, refer to program website
Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research:
Bradshaw, C. P., Zmuda, J. H., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2009). Longitudinal impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on educational outcomes in high school. Journal of educational psychology, 101(4), 926.
Humphrey, N., Panayiotou, M., Hennessey, A., & Ashworth, E. (2021). Treatment affect modifiers in a randomized trial of the good behavior game during middle childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 89(8), 668.
Ialongo, N. S., Domitrovich, C., Embry, D., Greenberg, M., Lawson, A., Becker, K. D., & Bradshaw, C. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of the combination of two school-based universal preventive interventions. Developmental Psychology, 55(6), 1313.
Kellam, S. G., Wang, W., Mackenzie, A. C., Brown, C. H., Ompad, D. C., Or, F., … & Windham, A. (2014). The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood. Prevention science, 15, 6-18.
Smith, E. P., Osgood, D. W., Oh, Y., & Caldwell, L. C. (2018). Promoting afterschool quality and positive youth development: Cluster randomized trial of the Pax Good Behavior Game. Prevention Science, 19, 159-173.
Well-Supported by Research
»WV Ratings Info
Rationale for Rating:
Many quality studies have been completed for this program.
Contraindications or Concerns:
The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare:
Well-Supported by Research Evidence
Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development:
Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness:
Not On Registry
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Model Programs Guide:
Promising - One study
Washington State Institute for Public Policy:
Found on the registry. See link for more information.
Washington State Institute for Public Policy Registry Link: