D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is a police officer-led series of classroom lessons that teaches children from kindergarten through 12th grade how to resist peer pressure and live productive drug and violence-free lives.

Last reviewed: 2023

Intended Outcomes:

-Provide kids with the knowledge and skills they need to avoid involvement in drugs, gangs, and violence.

Continuum of Care:
Selective Prevention

Topic Areas:
Behavioral Health/Mental Health, Disruptive Behaviors, Physical Health, Substance Use

Childhood (4-12), Teen/Adolescent (13-18)

Geographic Locations:
Rural, Urban

Delivery Settings:

Cultural Considerations:
Limited research found involving diverse populations

This program is intended to be used with K-12 students.

This program is delivered by Certified D.A.R.E. Officers.


Is Training Required?
Yes, see developer info

Who can provide the required training?
Please visit the D.A.R.E. website to find available trainings. If you are interested in starting a D.A.R.E. program at your school, contact your School Administrator and your local Chief of Police, County Sheriff, Mayor or County Executive requesting in writing that they host a D.A.R.E. program in your school.

Program Costs (materials, training, etc.):
Yes, refer to program website

Program/Practice Website:

Relevant Published, Peer-Reviewed Research:

Clayton, R. R., Cattarello, A. M., & Johnstone, B. M. (1996). The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (Project DARE): 5-year follow-up results. Preventive medicine, 25(3), 307-318.

Evans, E., & Tseloni, A. (2019). Evaluation of the UK DARE Primary programme. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 26(3), 238-249.

Pan, W., & Bai, H. (2009). A multivariate approach to a meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of the DARE program. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(1), 267-277.

West, S. L., & O’Neal, K. K. (2004). Project DARE outcome effectiveness revisited. American journal of public health, 94(6), 1027-1029.

Not Supported by research

WV Rating:
Not Supported by Research
»WV Ratings Info

Rationale for Rating:

D.A.R.E. overall has proven to be ineffective, the research does not support purported outcomes.

Contraindications or Concerns:
None identified

Other Registries/Ratings

The California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse for Child Welfare:
Not On Registry

Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development:
Not On Registry

Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness:
Not On Registry

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Model Programs Guide:
Not On Registry

Washington State Institute for Public Policy:
Not On Registry